Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)

The Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is an AC synchronous motor whose field excitation is provided by permanent magnets, and has a sinusoidal back EMF waveform. The PMSM is a cross between an induction motor and brushless DC motor. Like a brushless DC motor, it has a permanent magnet rotor and windings on the stator. However, the stator structure with windings constructed to produce a sinusoidal flux density in the air gap of the machine resembles that of an induction motor. Its power density is higher than induction motors with the same ratings since there is no stator power dedicated to magnetic field production.

With permanent magnets the PMSM can generate torque at zero speed, it requires digitally controlled inverter for operations. PMSM are typically used for high-performance and high-efficiency motor drives. High-performance motor control is characterized by smooth rotation over the entire speed range of the motor, full torque control at zero speed, and fast acceleration and deceleration.

To achieve such control, vector control techniques are used for PMSM. The vector control techniques are usually also referred to as field-oriented control (FOC). The basic idea of the vector control algorithm is to decompose a stator current into a magnetic field-generating part and a torque-generating part. Both components can be controlled separately after decomposition.

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